原文已被隐藏，你可用 快捷键 - 或点击 显示原文 按钮来查看原文
1 .<-NARRATOR:->Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->Alright, uh... so today we're moving on to Alice Neel, N-E-E-L.
2 .Uh, Alice Neel painted portraits, um, she was born in Pennsylvania and she lived from 1900 to 1984.
爱丽丝尼尔是一位画肖像画的画家，她出生于宾夕法尼亚州，生于 1900 年，于 1984 年去世。
3 .[confident, deliberate]And I guess you might say she experienced difficulties as an artist.
4 .She was in her 70s before she had her first major solo exhibition.
直到她 70 多岁的时候，她才有了一次自己的大型专属画展。
1 .Um, and this is due at least in part to, uh... er, because of photography.
2 .After photography became regarded as an art form, portrait painting became less prestigious, um, less respected as an art form and well... art photography kind of took its place.
3 .So you can imagine that a portrait artist would've had a hard time finding acceptance.
1 .Uh, but the real reason I want to look at Neel is that I really find her style, um, she had interesting ways of portraying people.
2 .She combined some elements of Realism... What's Realism. Alison?
1 .<-FEMALE STUDENT:->It's like, painting something exactly how it is, so an artist would try to make it as accurate, um, and objective as possible.
2 .Painting stuff just how it appears on the surface.
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->OK, good. So, Neel combined Realism with... well, actually, with Expressionism.[asking, expecting an answer] And that is...[pause, then hinting] um, we-we just covered this...
1 .<-FEMALE STUDENT:->[less confident]Um, it's into emotion, like artists are trying to, well, express themselves through the painting. Right?
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->Yep, the artist is depicting subjective emotions-showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist, rather than the outward form, so the image itself might be distorted or exaggerated in some way.
2 .The expression overrides objective, uh, representation.
3 .OK, so. Alice Neel combined these two uh, styles. Yes?
1 .<-FEMALE STUDENT:->Um, how is that even possible? [doubtful, no upspeak]How can you portray something exactly as it is, and at the same time, distort it with emotions? I don't get it.
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->Alright, good question. It's actually a good lead-in to some of the techniques that Neel used-that she employed to bridge that contradiction.
2 .In a minute I'll show you some of her portraits, and I'll want you to notice a few things about them.
3 .First, Neel's use of bold color, alright?
4 .You'll see she uses color to convey emotion and feeling...
5 .Like, the subjects' clothing, for instance-it appears brighter than it really is.
6 .And the subjects, the people being portrayed- Neel paid special attention to faces... the way she paints the eyes, an-and how the faces are portrayed- these are quite realistic, like the realists' work.
7 .But another thing Neel did was use elongated, sort of stretchy figures.
1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->But didn't a lot of Expressionist painters do that?
2 .So really you're saying that Neel's techniques were similar to what other artists were doing.
3 .What was it that she did that was, like, all her own?
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->OK, well, I think it has to do, partly, with the way she combined these techniques.
2 .So, for example those realistic faces and eyes but bright, distorted figures-it's a mix.
3 .You'll see that her portraits do reflect reality, um, the people that were actually sitting there.
1 .Realism was important in the sense that she wanted to show people as they really were- much like a photographer would.
2 .Uh, but Neel wasn't satisfied with photo-like realism.
3 .She went beyond that- and this is where Expressionism comes in.
4 .She believed in capturing the whole person-not just what was on the surface.
5 .That's where the Expressionist distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects' character or personality.
1 .But Neel's paintings are distinctive for her time in part because they are portraits.
2 .Remember I said that photography, and art photography, had largely taken the place of portraiture, to the extent that some critics had declared the genre of portraiture to be dead.
3 .But Neel felt that painting should reflect reality- [with humor]a real realist's stance, you could say- and to her, individuals- people-best reflect the reality of their time-of the age that they live in.
4 .So she painted portraits.
1 .An-and if you look at her work- we're talking in the vicinity of 3,000 paintings- if you look at them, it's like this gallery of the whole century... an enormous range of subjects- families, women, children, artists, people in poverty... these paintings really spanned class, age, and gender.
2 .It's like she transformed the genre- it's not just formal depictions of, uh,[slightly derogatory tone] presidents and ancestors anymore.
1 .But keep in mind that she was doing this when abstract art dominated the art scene.
2 .Representations of people weren't fashionable in the art world, and it wasn't until fairly late in the century that critics recognized the power of what she did.