始终显示原文
小黑人

欢迎使用考满分精听听写

截止昨天,已经有 252988 同学完成了 4103155 次的练习

开始练习 查看新手引导

原文已被隐藏,你可用 快捷键 - 或点击 显示原文 按钮来查看原文

第1段

1 .<-NARRATOR:->Listen to part of a lecture in a class on theater history. The professor is discussing the theater of 19th-century France .

旁白:听一段节关于剧院历史的讲座。这位教授正在讨论19世纪的法国剧院。

第2段

1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->The 19th century was the time that saw what we call “realism” developing in European theater.

教授:十九世纪见证了欧洲戏剧界的“现实主义”的发展。

2 .Uh to understand this, though, we first need to look at an earlier form of drama known as the “well-made play,” which, basically, was a pattern for constructing plays—plays that, um, beginning with some early nineteenth-century comedies in France, proved very successful commercially.

为了理解这一点,我们首先需要看一种早期被称作“佳构剧”的戏剧形式,它是一种构造戏剧的模式,从19世纪早期法国的一些喜剧开始,在商业上被证明是非常成功的。

第3段

1 .The dramatic devices used here weren't actually anything new, they have been around for centuries.

这些戏剧性技巧的使用并不是什么新鲜东西了,它们存在已久。

2 .But the formula for a well-made play required that the certain of these elements being included, in a particular order, and most importantly, that everything in the play be logically connected.

但是佳构剧的准则要求被包含的元素按特定顺序排列,并且最重要的是剧中的每一情节都要在逻辑上紧密相连。

3 .In fact, some of the playwrights would start by writing the end of the play and work backward toward the beginning, just to make sure each event led logically from what had gone before.

事实上,一些剧作家会在一开始就把结尾写好,然后再回到开头,就是为了确保每个时间都能够与之前发生的情节保持逻辑上的一致。

第4段

1 .Ok, so what are the necessary elements of a well-made play?

好了,佳构剧有哪些必备元素呢?

第5段

1 .Well, the first is logical exposition.

首先是逻辑阐述。

2 .Exposition is whatever background information you have to reveal to the audience so they’ll understand what’s going on.

阐述是为了给观众展示背景信息,那么这样他们就会明白到底发生了什么。

3 .Before this time, exposition might come from the actors simply giving speeches.

在这之前,阐述可能来自演员们简单的演讲。

4 .Uh someone might walk out on stage and say, [a little overdramatically]“In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,” and then tell all about the feuding families of Romeo and Juliet.

有人可能会走上舞台,说:“台词引用...”,然后告诉观众关于罗密欧与朱丽叶的家族纷争。

5 .[in contrast] But for the well-made play, even the exposition had to be logical... believable.

但是对于佳构剧来说,即便是阐述,也必须符合逻辑,令人信服。

6 .So, for example, uh you might have two servants gossiping as they’re cleaning the house, and one says, “Oh, what a shame the master’s son is still not married.”

比如说你可能会看见两个佣人一边收拾房子一边八卦的聊天,一人说道:“怎么主人的儿子还没结婚?”。

7 .And the other might mention a rumor about a mysterious gentleman who just moved into the town with his beautiful daughter.

另外一人则会提到有关一个神秘的绅士和他的女儿刚刚搬进城的谣言。

8 .These comments are part of the play's logical exposition.

这些注释都是剧中逻辑阐述的一部分。

第6段

1 .The next key element of the well-made play refer to as “the inciting incident.”

下一个关键元素叫做“煽动事件”。

2 .After we have the background information, we need a key moment to get things moving, they really makes the audience interested in what happens to the characters we just heard about.

有了背景信息之后,我们需要一个关键点来使得整个剧情流转,它们必须使观众对我们刚刚听到的角色感兴趣。

3 .So, for example, after the two servants reveal all this background information, we meet the young man, just as he first lays eyes on the beautiful young woman and immediately falls in love.

比如说,当两个佣人揭示了所有的背景信息之后,我们见到了这个年轻人,当他第一眼看到这个美丽姑娘然后立刻坠入了爱河。

4 .This is the inciting incident. [indicating why it’s called an “ínciting” incident] It sets off the plot of the play.

这就是煽动事件,它引发了接下来的剧情。

第7段

1 .Now, the plot of a well-made play is usually driven by secrets.

现在,佳构剧的剧情通常都是由谜团驱使的。

2 .Things, the audience knows, but the characters often don't know.

一些观众知道但是剧中角色不知道的事情。

3 .So, for example, the audience learned through a letter or through someone else's conversation

比如说,观众通过一封信或者某人的对话中得知

4 .Who this mysterious gentleman is, and why he left the town many years before.

这个神秘的男子是谁,为什么他多年前离开了家乡。

5 .But the young man doesn't know about this.

但是这个年轻人并不知道这些

6 .And the woman doesn't understand the ancient connection between her family and his.

而这个女人也不知道他们两家之间这种遥远的联系。

第8段

1 .And before the secrets are revealed to the main characters, the plot of the play proceeds as a series of sort of up and down moments.

在这个谜团揭晓之前,该剧本的情节被称为跌宕起伏的时刻。

2 .For example, the woman first appears not to even notice the young man, and it seems to him like the end of the world.

这个女人看上去并未注意到这个年轻人,而这对于他来说就像世界末日一样。

3 .But then, he learns that she actually wants to meet him too. So, life is wonderful.

但是接下来,他得知她也想见他。所以说人生奇妙无穷。

4 .Then, if he tries to talk with her, maybe her father gets furious, for no apparent reason.

接下来,如果他试着和她说话,那么可能她父亲会莫名其妙的极其愤怒

5 .So, they can‘t see each other.

因此他们彼此不能相见。

6 .But, just as the young man has almost lost all hope, he finds out, well you get the idea, the reversals of the fortune continue, increasing the audience's tension and excitement,

但是就在这个男人几乎绝望之时,他发现时来运转了,这就使得观众更加紧张和激动了。

7 .making them wonder if everything is going to come out okay or not.

他们会很想知道对事情的结局是好是坏。

第9段

1 .Next comes an element known as the: An obligatory scene.

接下来的元素叫做必要场景。

2 .It's a scene, a moment in which all the secrets are revealed.

它是一种所有谜团都会揭晓的场景。

3 .In generally, things turn out well for the hero and others we care about, a happy ending of some sorts.

通常来说,那些英雄和我们关注的人物都会以好的结局收尾。

4 .This became so popular that the playwright almost had to include it in every play, which is why it's called: the obligatory scene.

这实在是太受欢迎了因此剧作家不得不把它们纳入剧中成为必要场景。

第10段

1 .And that's followed by the final dramatic element---the denouement or the resolution, when all the loose ends have to be tied up in a logical way.

这之后就会出现最终最具戏剧性的元素---结局或者解决,这个时候所有已经明朗的情节一个个按照逻辑紧密相连。

2 .Remember, the obligatory scene gives the audience emotional pleasure.

记住,必要场景给观众的是情感愉悦

3 .But the denouement offers the audience a logical conclusion.

而结局给观众的是逻辑结尾。

4 .That's the subtle distinction we need to try very hard to keep in mind.

这是我们必须要极力分辨的细微差别。

第11段

1 .So, as I said, the well-made play, this form of play writing, became the basis for realism in drama, and for a lot of very popular 19th-century plays.

那么就像我说的一样,佳构剧成为了现实主义戏剧以及19 世纪很多受欢迎戏剧的基石。

2 .And also, a pattern we find in the plots of many later plays, and even movies that we see today.

不仅如此,它还是之后很多喜剧情局情节的模式,甚至包括我们今天看的电影。