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1 .Listen to part of a lecture in a film history class.
1 .Okay, we've been discussing films in the 1920s and 30s, and how back then film categories, as we know them today, had not yet been established.
我们一直在讨论20 世纪20 年代和30 年代的电影和我们今天熟知的电影分类那个时候没有形成。
2 .We said that by today's standards, many of the films of the 20s and 30s would be considered hybrids, that is, a mixture of styles that wouldn't exactly fit into any of today's categories.
3 .And in that context, today we are going to talk about a film-maker who began making very unique films in the late 1920s.
4 .He was French, and his name was Jean Painlevé.
1 .Jean Painlevé was born in 1902.
Jean Painlevé生于1902 年。
2 .He made his first film in 1928.
3 .Now in a way, Painlevé's films conform to norms of the 20s and 30s, that is, they don't fit very neatly into the categories we use to classify films today.
4 .That said, even by the standards of the 20s and 30s, Painlevé's films were a unique, hybrid of styles.
5 .He had a special way of fusing, or some people might say, confusing, science and fiction.
6 .His films begin with facts, but then they become more and more fictional.
7 .They gradually add more and more fictional elements.
8 .In fact, Painlevé was known for saying that science is fiction.
1 .Painlevé was a pioneer in underwater film-making, and a lot of his short films focused on the aquatic animal world.
2 .He liked to show small underwater creatures, displaying what seemed like familiar human characteristics - what we think of as unique to humans.
3 .He might take a clip of a mollusk going up and down in the water and set it to music.
4 .You know, to make it look as if the mollusk were dancing to the music like a human being - that sort of thing.
5 .But then he suddenly changed the image or narration to remind us how different the animals are, how unlike humans.
1 .He confused his audience in the way he portrayed the animals he filmed, mixing up our notions of the categories, human and animal.
2 .The films make us a little uncomfortable at times because we are uncertain about what we are seeing.
3 .It gives his films an uncanny feature: the familiar made unfamiliar, the normal made suspicious.
4 .He liked twists, he liked the unusual.
5 .In fact, one of his favorite sea animals was the sea-horse because with sea-horses, it's the male that carries the eggs, and he thought that was great.
6 .His first and most celebrated underwater film is about the sea-horse.
1 .Susan, you have a question?
1 .But underwater film-making wasn't that unusual, was it?
2 .I mean, weren't there other people making movies underwater?
1 .Well, actually, it was pretty rare at that time.
2 .I mean, we are talking the early 1930s here.
1 .But what about Jacques Cousteau?
2 .Wasn't he like an innovator, you know, with underwater photography too?
1 .Ah, Jacques Cousteau.
2 .Well, Painlevé and Cousteau did both film underwater, and they were both innovators, so you are right in that sense.
3 .But that's pretty much where the similarities end.
1 .First of all, Painlevé was about 20 years ahead of Cousteau.
2 .And Cousteau's adventures were high-tech, with lots of fancy equipment, whereas Painlevé kind of patched equipment together as he needed it.
3 .Cousteau usually filmed large animals, usually in the open sea, whereas Painlevé generally filmed smaller animals, and he liked to film in shallow water.
1 .Uh, what else?
2 .Oh well, the main difference was that Cousteau simply investigated and presented the facts - he didn't mix in fiction.
3 .He was a strict documentarist.
4 .He set the standard really for the nature documentary.
5 .Painlevé, on the other hand, as we said before, mixed in elements of fiction.
6 .And his films are much more artistic, incorporating music as an important element.
1 .John, you have a question?
1 .Well, maybe I shouldn't be asking this, but if Painlevé's films are so special, so good, why haven't we ever heard of them?
2 .I mean, everyone's heard of Jacques Cousteau.
1 .Well, that's a fair question.
2 .Uh, the short answer is that Painlevé's style just never caught on with the general public.
3 .I mean, it probably goes back at least in part to what we mentioned earlier, that people didn't know what to make of his films - they were confused by them, whereas Cousteau's documentaries were very straightforward, met people's expectations more than Painlevé's films did.
4 .But your true, film history buffs know about him.
5 .And Painlevé is still highly respected in many circles.