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第一段

1 .Listen to part of a lecture in a philosophy class.

听一段哲学课堂的讲座。

第二段

1 .OK. Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle - Aristotle's ethical theory.

我们需要讨论的另外一个古希腊哲学家是亚里斯多德——亚里斯多德的伦理学说。

2 .What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this: he's trying to show you how to be happy - what true happiness is.

亚里斯多德的伦理学说主要讲的是:他试着让你如何变得幸福快乐——什么是真正的幸福快乐。

第三段

1 .Now, why is he interested in human happiness?

然而,他为什么对人类的幸福感兴趣?

2 .It's not just because it's something that all people want or aim for.

并不只是因为幸福快乐是大家所追求的。

3 .It's more than that.

不仅仅是这样。

4 .But to get there we need to first make a very important distinction.

为了了解这一点,我们首先得做出一个重要的区分。

5 .Let me introduce a couple of technical terms: extrinsic value and intrinsic value.

我先导入两个专业术语:外在价值和内在价值。

第四段

1 .To understand Aristotle's interest in happiness, you need to understand this distinction.

要想了解亚里斯多德为什么对幸福快乐感兴趣,你得先会区分这两个术语。

第五段

1 .Some things we aim for and value, not for themselves but for what they bring about in addition to themselves.

我们追寻和看重的事物,不是该事物本身,而是由它带来的附加价值。

2 .If I value something as a means to something else, then it has what we will call "extrinsic value".

如果我将一个事物看成是获得另一个事物的途径,那么这个事物拥有我们说的“外在价值”。

3 .Other things we desire and hold to be valuable for themselves alone.

而其他事物,我们渴望得到或拥有就其本身而言有价值。

4 .If we value something not as a means to something else, but for its own sake, let us say that it has "intrinsic value".

如果我们不将一个事物看成是获得另外一个事物的途径,而只是为了得到该事物本身,我们可以说它拥有“内在价值”。

第六段

1 .Exercise. There may be some people who value exercise for itself, but I don't, I value exercise because if I exercise, I tend to stay healthier than I would if I didn't.

拿锻炼来说,或许有一些人看重的是锻炼本身,但我不这么想。

2 .So I desire to engage in exercise and I value exercise extrinsically... not for its own sake, but as a means to something beyond it.

我之所以看好锻炼是因为如果我锻炼,我就会比自己不锻炼更健康。显然,我并不是为了锻炼而锻炼

3 .It brings me good health.

而是将其看成是我达成其背后价值的一种途径。

第七段

1 .Health. Why do I value good health?

又比如说健康,我为什么珍视健康?

2 .Well, here it gets a little more complicated for me.

这对我来说有点复杂。

3 .Um, health is important for me because I can't... do other things I want to do - play music, teach philosophy - if I'm ill.

这么说,健康对我来说很重要是因为我不能……做我想做的事——弹奏音乐,教哲学——如果我生病了。

4 .So health is important to me - has value to me - as a means to a productive life.

所以健康对我来说很重要——对我有价值——作为通向多产人生的途径。

5 .But health is also important to me because I just kind of like to be healthy - it feels good.

健康对我重要的原因还有我只是喜欢健健康康的感觉——这个感觉不错。

6 .It's pleasant to be healthy, unpleasant not to be.

健康时神采奕奕,生病时萎靡不振。

7 .So to some degree I value health both for itself and as a means to something else: productivity.

所以,在一定程度上,我看重健康的本身的同时也将其看成是获得其他东西的途径:生产率。

8 .It's got extrinsic and intrinsic value for me.

对我来说,健康既有外在价值又有内在价值。

第八段

1 .Then there's some things that are just valued for themselves.

而由健康带来的事物里也有各自的内在价值。

2 .I'm a musician, not a professional musician; I just play a musical instrument for fun.

我爱好音乐,但我不是职业的音乐家;我弹奏乐器纯属娱乐。

3 .Why do I value playing music?

我为什么喜欢弹奏音乐?

4 .Well, like most amateur musicians, I only play because, well, I just enjoy it.

其实,跟绝大多数音乐爱好者一样,我享受弹奏音乐的过程。

5 .It's something that's an end in itself.

为弹奏而弹奏。

第九段

1 .Now, something else I value is teaching.

我喜欢的还有教课。

2 .Why? Well, it brings in a modest income, but I could make more money doing other things.

为什么?虽然教课能挣到一点钱,但做别的事我能挣到更多。

3 .I'd do it even if they didn't pay me.

即便不给工资,我也会继续教课。

4 .I just enjoy teaching.

我喜欢教学,仅此而已。

5 .In that sense it's an end to itself.

这样说来,我是为了教课而教课。

第十段

1 .But teaching's not something that has intrinsic value for all people - and that's true generally.

但是,对所有人来说教课并没有内在价值——普遍这样认为的。

2 .Most things that are enjoyed in and of themselves vary from person to person.

很多事情我们是乐在其中还是乐在其外是因人而异的。

3 .Some people value teaching intrinsically, but others don't.

有些人认为教学有内在价值,但有些人不这样认为。

第十一段

1 .So how does all this relate to human happiness?

那么这些跟人类幸福快乐有什么关系呢?

2 .Well, Aristotle asks: is there something that all human beings value... and value only intrinsically, for its own sake and only for its own sake?

亚里斯多德是这样设问的:人们因为其有内在价值,仅仅因为自身的原因,而重视的事物存在吗?

3 .If you could find such a thing, that would be the universal final good, or truly the ultimate purpose or goal for all human beings.

如果你能找到这样的事物,那它应该这个世界终极的善举,或者说是人类终极目标。

4 .Aristotle thought the answer was yes.

亚里斯多德给出的答案是肯定的。

5 .What is it? Happiness.

是什么呢?幸福。

6 .Everyone will agree, he argues, that happiness is the ultimate end to be valued for itself and really only for itself.

大家将不会反对,他说幸福快乐是衡量其本身的最终目标,它是可以自己存在的。

7 .For what other purpose is there in being happy?

在幸福里你能找到幸福的目的吗?

8 .What does it yield?

它将收获什么?

9 .The attainment of happiness becomes the ultimate or highest good for Aristotle.

所以,获取幸福是亚里斯多德最终的也是最高的追求。

第十二段

1 .The next question that Aristotle raises is: what is happiness?

亚里斯多德提出的第二个问题是:什么是幸福?

2 .We all want it; we all desire it; we all seek it.

我们都需要;我们都想要;我们都在追寻。

3 .It's the goal we have in life.

幸福是我们生活的目标。

4 .But what is it? How do we find it?

但是,它到底是什么?我们如何去追寻?

5 .Here he notes, with some frustration, people disagree.

这里亚里斯多德提到,几经挫折人们往往并不同意刚才的看法。

第十三段

1 .But he does give us a couple of criteria, or features, to keep in mind as we look for what true human happiness is.

而且他也给了我们一些标准,或是幸福的特征,以便在寻找幸福的过程中作为参考。

2 .True human happiness should be, as he puts it, complete.

如他所说,真正的幸福应该是完彻。

3 .Complete in that it's all we require.

在大家所需求的方面做到无缺。

4 .Well, true human happiness... if you had that, what else do you need?

嗯,人类真正的幸福……如果你拥有,你还需要什么?

5 .Nothing.

什么都不需要。

第十四段

1 .And, second, true happiness should be something that I can obtain on my own.

此外,真正的幸福我可以不需要外力也能获得。

2 .I shouldn't have to rely on other people for it.

我们不需要借助别人的力量便可获得。

3 .Many people value fame and seek fame.

很多人爱慕虚荣,追寻名声。

4 .Fame for them becomes the goal.

他们视名声为目标。

5 .But, according to Aristotle, this won't work either, because fame depends altogether too much on other people.

然而,据亚里士多德所言,这也不会凑效,因为要获得名声,需要极大借助他人的力量。

6 .I can't get it on my own, without help from other people.

没有别人的帮助,我不可能自己成名。

第十五段

1 .In the end, Aristotle says that true happiness is the exercise of reason - life of intellectual contemplation... of thinking.

最后,亚里士多德表示,真正的幸福是理智的践行,即关于知性思考的生活,关于思想的生活。

2 .So let's see how he comes to that.

那么我们继续看看他是怎么解释的。