始终显示原文
小黑人

欢迎使用考满分精听听写

截止昨天,已经有 252988 同学完成了 4103155 次的练习

开始练习 查看新手引导

原文已被隐藏,你可用 快捷键 - 或点击 显示原文 按钮来查看原文

第1段

1 .This is Scientific American - 60-Second Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

该句暂无译文!

2 .We humans sometimes use a memory technique called chunking.

该句暂无译文!

3 .For example, with phone numbers we usually remember the three-digit chunk and the four-digit chunk.

该句暂无译文!

4 .Two items instead of seven.

该句暂无译文!

5 ."Well, the way I think about chunking is it's any short cutting strategy or mnemonic device

该句暂无译文!

6 .that would allow an animal, be it human or otherwise, to increase their memory capacity and improve recall.

该句暂无译文!

7 ." Mikel Delgado, an animal behaviorist now at U.C. Davis.

该句暂无译文!

8 ."And so in the case of the research I was doing in this study,

该句暂无译文!

9 .I wanted to know if squirrels would basically arrange their nuts in a way that might facilitate either recall of the location

该句暂无译文!

10 .or recaching and redistribution of those nuts later,

该句暂无译文!

11 .making it more convenient for them to remember where nuts were stored-

该句暂无译文!

12 .because they stored nuts of a similar type or value in similar locations spatially."

该句暂无译文!

13 .Delgado looked for this spatial chunking among 45 fox squirrels on the campus of U.C. Berkeley, where she got her doctorate in August.

该句暂无译文!

14 ."So we gave each squirrel 16 nuts...our each of four different types...so the types were almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts and pecans."

该句暂无译文!

15 ."And so we'd give the squirrel the first nut, they'd go bury it.

该句暂无译文!

16 .We would follow them from a distance until they had finished caching, or burying it. We recorded the GPS location where they'd buried the nut.

该句暂无译文!

17 .And then we lured them back to the original location where they received the first nut to give them the second nut.

该句暂无译文!

18 .And so we did that every single time."

该句暂无译文!

19 ."And so the other location condition was basically a lot faster and easier

该句暂无译文!

20 .where we gave the squirrel the first nut, they buried it,

该句暂无译文!

21 .and then we gave them the second nut right where they buried the first one."

该句暂无译文!

22 .And when the squirrels got all their nuts from a central location, they spatially chunked them:

该句暂无译文!

23 ."So they would actually cache nuts that were the same species in distinct areas from nuts of a different species...

该句暂无译文!

24 .so the take home message I think for me is really that just like physical traits have evolved,

该句暂无译文!

25 .I believe that cognitive traits have evolved as well.

该句暂无译文!

26 .And a memory process that's very common in humans, this chunking, is a strategy that works for other species."

该句暂无译文!

27 .The study is in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

该句暂无译文!

28 .Why the critters did not spatially chunk when they received nuts in different locations is not clear.

该句暂无译文!

29 .To do so might have been too energetically costly.

该句暂无译文!

30 .It's also possible that it's beyond their cognitive capacity-

该句暂无译文!

31 .although anyone who has tried to squirrel-proof a bird feeder knows that squirrels have a lot of cognitive capacity.

该句暂无译文!

32 .Thanks for listening the Scientific American - 60-Second Science Science. I'm Steve Mirsky.

该句暂无译文!