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Aristotle

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What is the main purpose of the lecture?
  • A. To illustrate the importance of extrinsic values

  • B. To explain Aristotle's views about the importance of teaching

  • C. To explain why people change what they value

  • D. To discuss Aristotle's views about human happiness

显示答案 正确答案: D
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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a philosophy class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:OK. Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle - Aristotle's ethical theory.What Aristotle's ethical theory is all about is this: he's trying to show you how to be happy - what true happiness is.

    Now, why is he interested in human happiness? It's not just because it's something that all people want or aim for. It's more than that.But to get there we need to first make a very important distinction.Let me introduce a couple of technical terms: extrinsic value and intrinsic value.

    To understand Aristotle's interest in happiness, you need to understand this distinction.

    Some things we aim for and value, not for themselves but for what they bring about in addition to themselves. If I value something as a means to something else, then it has what we will call [read slowly] “extrinsic value.”Other things we desire and hold to be valuable for themselves alone. If we value something not as a means to something else, but for its own sake, let us say that it has [read slowly] “intrinsic value.”

    Exercise. There may be some people who value exercise for itself, but I don't, I value exercise because if I exercise, I tend to stay healthier than I would if I didn't.So I desire to engage in exercise and I value exercise extrinsically... not for its own sake, but as a means to something beyond it.It brings me good health.

    Health. Why do I value good health? Well, here it gets a little more complicated for me.Um, health is important for me because I can't... do other things I want to do - play music, teach philosophy - if I'm ill. So health is important to me - has value to me - as a means to a productive life. But health is also important to me because I just kind of like to be healthy - it feels good. It's pleasant to be healthy, unpleasant not to be.So to some degree I value health both for itself and as a means to something else: productivity. It's got extrinsic and intrinsic value for me.

    Then there's some things that are just valued for themselves. I'm a musician, not a professional musician; I just play a musical instrument for fun. Why do I value playing music? Well, like most amateur musicians, I only play because, well, I just enjoy it. It's something that's an end in itself.

    Now, something else I value is teaching. Why? Well, it brings in a modest income, but I could make more money doing other things.I'd do it even if they didn't pay me. I just enjoy teaching. In that sense it's an end to itself.

    But teaching's not something that has intrinsic value for all people - and that's true generally.Most things that are enjoyed in and of themselves vary from person to person.Some people value teaching intrinsically, but others don't.

    So how does all this relate to human happiness? Well, Aristotle asks: is there something that all human beings value... and value only intrinsically, for its own sake and only for its own sake?If you could find such a thing, that would be the universal final good, or truly the ultimate purpose or goal for all human beings.Aristotle thought the answer was yes.What is it? Happiness. Everyone will agree, he argues, that happiness is the ultimate end...to be valued for itself and really only for itself. [rhetorical question]For what other purpose is there in being happy? [rhetorical question, with implicit answer being nothing’] What does it yield? [conclusion, not an answer to previous questons]The attainment of happiness becomes the ultimate or highest good for Aristotle.

    The next question that Aristotle raises is: what is happiness? We all want it; we all desire it; we all seek it. It's the goal we have in life. But what is it? How do we find it?Here he notes, with some frustration, people disagree.

    But he does give us a couple of criteria, or features, to keep in mind as we look for what true human happiness is.True human happiness should be, as he puts it, complete. Complete in that it's all we require. Well, true human happiness... if you had that, what else do you need? Nothing.

    And, second, true happiness should be something that I can obtain on my own. I shouldn't have to rely on other people for it.Many people value fame and seek fame. Fame for them becomes the goal.But, according to Aristotle, this won't work either, because fame depends altogether too much on other people.I can't get it on my own, without help from other people.

    In the end, Aristotle says that true happiness is the exercise of reason - life of intellectual contemplation... of thinking. So let's see how he comes to that.

  • 旁白:听一段哲学课堂的讲座。

    教授:我们需要讨论的另外一个古希腊哲学家是亚里士多德--亚里士多德的伦理学说。亚里士多德的伦理学说主要讲的是:他试着让你了解如何变得幸福快乐--什么是真正的幸福快乐。

    然而,他为什么对人类的幸福感兴趣?并不只是因为幸福快乐是大家所追求的。不仅仅是这样。而且为了能幸福快乐,我们首先得做出一个重要的区分。我先导入两个专业术语:外在价值和内在价值。

    要想了解亚里士多德为什么对幸福快乐感兴趣,你得先会区分这两个术语。

    我们追寻和看重的事物,不是该事物本身,而是由它带来的附加价值。如果我将一个事物看成是获得另一个事物的途径,那么这个事物拥有我们说的“外在价值”。而其他事物,我们渴望得到或拥有就其本身而言有价值。如果我们不将一个事物看成是获得另外一个事物的途径,而只是为了得到该事物本身,我们可以说它拥有“内在价值”。

    拿锻炼来说,或许有一些人看重的是锻炼本身,但我不这么想。我之所以看好锻炼是因为如果我锻炼,我就会比自己不锻炼更健康。所以我想要参加锻炼,认为锻炼有外在价值。显然,我并不是为了锻炼而锻炼,而是将其看成是我达成其背后价值的一种途径。锻炼能让我身体健康

    又比如说健康,我为什么珍视健康?这对我来说有点复杂。这么说,健康对我来说很重要是因为我不能……做我想做的事——弹奏音乐,教哲学——如果我生病了。所以健康对我来说很重要——对我有价值——作为通向多产人生的途径。健康对我重要的原因还有我只是喜欢健健康康的感觉——这个感觉不错。健康时神采奕奕,生病时萎靡不振。所以,在一定程度上,我看重健康的本身的同时也将其看成是获得其他东西的途径:生产率。对我来说,健康既有外在价值又有内在价值。

    而由健康带来的事物里也有各自的内在价值。我爱好音乐,但我不是职业的音乐家;我弹奏乐器纯属娱乐。我为什么喜欢弹奏音乐?其实,跟绝大多数音乐爱好者一样,我享受弹奏音乐的过程。为弹奏而弹奏。

    我喜欢的还有教课。为什么?虽然教课挣钱很少,但我可以做别的事挣钱。即便不给工资,我也会继续教课。我喜欢教学,仅此而已。这样说来,我是为了教课而教课。

    但是,教课并不对所有人都有内在价值--这一般是实情。很多事情我们是乐在其中还是乐在其外是因人而异的。有些人认为教学有内在价值,但有些人不这样认为。

    那么这些跟人类幸福快乐有什么关系呢?亚里士多德是这样设问的:存不存在这样的事物,所有人类都认为它有价值,而且是内在价值,因为且仅仅因为其自身原因。如果你能找到这样的事物,那它应该这个世界终极的善举,或者说是人类终极目标。亚里士多德给出的答案是肯定的。是什么呢?幸福。大家将不会反对,他说幸福快乐是且仅是衡量其本身的最终目标。在幸福里你能找到幸福的其它目的吗?它能收获什么?所以,获取幸福是亚里斯多德最终的也是最高的追求。

    亚里斯多德提出的第二个问题是:什么是幸福?我们都需要;我们都想要;我们都追求。幸福是我们生活的目标。但是,它到底是什么?我们如何追求?这里亚里士多德提到,几经挫折人们往往并不同意刚才的看法。

    但他的确给了我们一些标准,或是幸福的特征,以便在寻找人类幸福的过程中作为参考。如他所说,真正的幸福应该是完彻。在大家所需求的方面做到无缺。嗯,人类真正的幸福……如果你拥有了,你还需要什么?什么都不需要。

    此外,真正的幸福是全凭自己的力量可以获取的东西。我们不需要借助别人的力量便可获得。很多人爱慕虚荣,追寻名声。他们视名声为目标。然而,据亚里士多德所言,这都不奏效,因为要获得名声,需要极大借助他人的力量。没有别人的帮助,我不可能自己成名。

    最后,亚里士多德表示,真正的幸福是理智的践行,即关于知性思考的生活,关于思想的生活。那么我们继续看看他是怎么解释的。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    OK. Another ancient Greek philosopher we need to discuss is Aristotle–Aristotle’s ethical theory. What Aristotle’s ethical theory is all about is this: 

    he’s trying to show you how to be happy–what true happiness is.

    选项分析

    文章开头非常明确地说了这次课的目的,D选项的views about human happiness是原文what true happiness的同义替换。A选项,extrinsic是为了说明happiness而引出的。B选项,teaching是细节。C选项,未提及。

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