Official 03 Set 3

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置顶

Jean Painlevé

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What is the main purpose of the lecture?
  • A. To discuss the style of an early filmmaker

  • B. To describe different types of filmmaking in the 1930s

  • C. To discuss the emergence of the documentary film

  • D. To describe Painleve’s influence on today’s science-fiction films

显示答案 正确答案: A
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  • 原文
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    <-NARRATOR:->Listen to part of a lecture in a film history class.
    <-MALE PROFESSOR:->Okay, we've been discussing films in the 1920s and 30s, and how back then film categories, as we know them today, had not yet been established.
    We said that by today's standards, many of the films of the 20s and 30s would be considered hybrids, that is, a mixture of styles that wouldn't exactly fit into any of today's categories.
    And in that context, today we are going to talk about a film-maker who began making very unique films in the late 1920s.
    He was French, and his name was Jean Painlevé.
    Jean Painlevé was born in 1902[nineteen oh two]. He made his first film in 1928.
    Now in a way, Painlevé's films conform to norms of the 20s and 30s, that is, they don't fit very neatly into the categories we use to classify films today.
    That said, even by the standards of the 20s and 30s, Painlevé's films were a unique, hybrid of styles.
    He had a special way of fusing, or some people might say, confusing, science and fiction.
    His films begin with facts, but then they become more and more fictional. They gradually add more and more fictional elements.
    In fact, Painlevé was known for saying that science is fiction.
    Painlevé was a pioneer in underwater film-making, and a lot of his short films focused on the aquatic animal world.
    He liked to show small underwater creatures, displaying what seemed like familiar human characteristics - what we think of as unique to humans.
    He might take a clip of a mollusk going up and down in the water and set it to music.
    You know, to make it look as if the mollusk were dancing to the music like a human being - that sort of thing.
    But then he suddenly changed the image or narration to remind us how different the animals are, how unlike humans.
    He confused his audience in the way he portrayed the animals he filmed, mixing up our notions of the categories, human and animal.
    The films make us a little uncomfortable at times because we are uncertain about what we are seeing.
    It gives his films an uncanny feature: the familiar made unfamiliar, the normal made suspicious.
    He liked twists, he liked the unusual.
    In fact, one of his favorite sea animals was the sea-horse because with sea-horses, it's the male that carries the eggs, and he thought that was great.
    His first and most celebrated underwater film is about the sea-horse.
    [seeing hand raised]Susan, you have a question?
    <-FEMALE STUDENT:->But underwater film-making wasn't that unusual, was it? I mean, weren't there other people making movies underwater?
    <-MALE PROFESSOR:->Well, actually, it was pretty rare at that time. I mean, we are talking the early 1930s here.
    <-FEMALE STUDENT:->But what about Jacques Cousteau? Wasn't he like an innovator, you know, with underwater photography too?
    <-MALE PROFESSOR:->[He now understands what she is thinking] Ah, Jacques Cousteau.
    Well, Painlevé and Cousteau did both film underwater, and they were both innovators, so you are right in that sense.
    But that's pretty much where the similarities end.
    First of all, Painlevé was about 20 years ahead of Cousteau.
    And Cousteau's adventures were high-tech, with lots of fancy equipment, whereas Painlevé kind of patched equipment together as he needed it.
    Cousteau usually filmed large animals, usually in the open sea, whereas Painlevé generally filmed smaller animals, and he liked to film in shallow water.
    Uh, what else? Oh well, the main difference was that Cousteau simply investigated and presented the facts - he didn't mix in fiction.
    He was a strict documentarist. He set the standard really for the nature documentary.
    Painlevé, on the other hand, as we said before, mixed in elements of fiction. And his films are much more artistic, incorporating music as an important element.
    John, you have a question?
    <-MALE STUDENT:->[very carefully, fearing that he might offend the professor]Well, maybe I shouldn't be asking this, but if Painlevé's films are so special, so good, why haven't we ever heard of them?
    I mean, everyone's heard of Jacques Cousteau...
    <-MALE PROFESSOR:->Well, that's a fair question. Uh, the short answer is that Painlevé's style just never caught on with the general public.
    I mean, it probably goes back at least in part to what we mentioned earlier, that people didn't know what to make of his films - they were confused by them, whereas Cousteau's documentaries were very straightforward, met people's expectations more than Painlevé's films did.
    But your true, film history buffs know about him.
    And Painlevé is still highly respected in many circles.

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    旁白:听一段电影史课堂的讲座。
    教授:我们一直在讨论20 世纪20 年代和30 年代的电影和我们今天熟知的电影分类那个时候没有形成。
    我们说过,以现在的标准,二、三十年代的很多电影算是“混血儿”,也就是说,各种风格的混合体并不符合当今电影的类别。
    也不符合时下的环境。今天我们探讨一个在上个世纪20 年代开创独具一格的电影的电影制作人。
    他是法国人,他叫Jean Painlevé
    Jean Painlevé生于1902 年。他在1928 年拍了第一部电影。
    在一定程度上,Painlevé的电影符合了二、三十年代的标准,也就是说,它们并不太符合我们现在用来给电影分类的标准。
    即便以上个世纪二、三十年代的标准来衡量,Painlevé的电影还是独具特色的各种风格的混合体。
    对现实和虚幻他有自己一套独特的融合方法,或许有人会说是“迷魂”法。
    他的电影一般以真实情节作为铺垫,但之后它们变得越来越虚幻。他作品里的虚幻元素逐渐增多。
    事实上,Painlevé因为说过“科就是幻”而闻名。
    他是水下拍摄的先驱,此外他拍了很多关于水生动物世界题材的短片。
    他喜欢向世人展示小型的水下生物,展现与人类共享的特性——我们以为人类独有的。
    他或许会拍一段软体动物在水里上下游荡并配以背景音乐。
    让其看起来像人类一样闻歌起舞——诸如之类的事。
    之后,他会突然切换镜头或出现旁白来提示观众动物的不同之处,如何与人不同。
    他在电影里描述动物的方式常迷惑大众,搅合人类和动物的概念类别。
    这些电影常常让我们感到有些别扭因为我们不确定自己正在观看的是什么。
    这给他的电影带来神秘的色彩:让熟悉变得陌生,让正常变得可疑。
    他喜欢曲折,喜欢离奇。
    实际上,他最喜欢的海洋动物之一是海马,因为雄性海马产卵,他认为这是很不错的。
    他的第一部也是最著名的一部水下电影就跟海马有关。
    苏珊,你有什么问题吗?
    学生:但水下电影也不是那么不同寻常,是吧?我意思是说,当时就没有其他人也在水下拍摄电影?
    教授:嗯,其实,这在当时来说确实少见。我是说,我们在讨论上个世纪20 年代初期的事。
    学生:那雅克·库斯托呢?就水下摄影来说,他难道不像个改革者吗?
    教授:呃,雅克·库斯托。
    是的,Painlevé和库斯托确实都拍摄水下电影,同时他俩都是改革者,在这个层面上你说得对。
    但他们的共同之处也仅限于此。
    首先,Painlevé先于库斯托大概20 年。
    此外,库斯托的电影科技含量高,有很多昂贵的设备,然而Painlevé更像是在需要的时候把设备拼凑起来。
    库斯托通常拍摄大型的动物,通常在公海拍,然而Painlevé一般拍摄小一点动物,另外他喜欢在浅水拍摄。
    呃,看看还有什么?哦,主要的区别是库斯托只是调查和展现事实——他没有将事实与虚幻的东西混合到一起。
    他是一位严谨的纪录片导演。他为真正的自然纪录片建立了标准。
    另一个重要区别是,正如Painlevé先前说过的:融合虚幻元素。另外,他的电影更具艺术色彩,合并的(背景)音乐作为一个重要因素。
    约翰,你有问题吗?
    学生:或许我不应该问这个,如果Painlevé的电影是那么的特别,那么的优秀,为什么我们从来没有听说过他的作品?
    我是说,大家都听说过雅克·库斯托。
    教授:嗯,这是一个值得探究的问题。呃,简单的回答是Painlevé’s 的风格并不为大众所知。
    我是说,我们得回到我们先前提到过的一个问题:人们并不知道他的作品讲什么——他们对他的电影很是困惑,然而库斯托的纪录片很直白明了,相比Painlevé的电影他的作品迎合了人们的期望。
    但这一点你说得对:电影史爱好者很了解这些。
    此外,Painlevé在很多领域都有很高的声望。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    And in that context, today we’re going to talk about a, a filmmaker who began making very unique films in the late 1920s. He was French, and his name 

    was Jean Painlevé.

    选项分析

    在介绍了上次课的内容后,教授说今天要讲一个拍摄非常独特电影的filmmaker,对应A选项,style是原文unique的同义替换。B选项,对比的部分是学生的提问,不是本次课目的。C选项,emergency未提及。D选项,对今天的films影响未提及。

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